- ABRAMOVIC Marina & ULAY, Relation works 1976-1980
Les relation works d’Abramovic & Ulay ont pour triple principe: « ni répétition, ni fin prédéterminée, ni reproduction ».
Abramovic & Ulay prennent en compte l’espace, le temps et le corps dans ces performannces, ce qui les inscrivent dans les performances conceptuelles. Les performances impliquent le spectateur à participer à une situation vécu par les artistes en même temps. Le temps est déterminé par la durée qu’ils peuvent endurer une action, (qui peut être quelques minutes ou plusieurs jours). Les performancesd’Abramovic et Ulay prennaient fin à l’épuisement d’une action « symbiotique », (ou à la fermeture du lieu d’exposition). Ils sont parfois nus, parfois habillés; à l’intérieur ou à l’extérieur, voire entre les deux (entre montants d’une porte). Parfois ils prononcent des ordres, qui déterminent la nature de l’action (Go... Stop... Back... Stop, Melbourne, mai 1979), mais il n’est jamais question d’une narration.
Au commencement, par un commun accord, les artistes sont « unis » physiquement et mentalement. La fin par contre marque la séparation, le moment ou les artistes ne sont plus en union, dans l’impossibilité d’endurer la « fusion » -débutant dans la symbiose, et terminant dans la « non-symbiose », ils cherchent à retrouver les « individualités » plutôt que la symbiose.
Dans la performance Breathing in-Breathing out (« inhalant -expirant », 1977) Abramavic et Ulay se sont embrassés jusqu’à ce que leurs réserves réciproques en oxygène se soient épuisés, à la dix-neuvième minute.
Un bon nombre des performances d’Abramovic et Ulay marchent sur ce principe de synchronisation, où les artistes tentent de dissoudre le « moi » dans l’altérité.
Dans Relation in time (octobre 1977): Marina et Ulay se tiennent pendant dix-sept heures adossés l’un à l’autre, leurs cheveux entre-noués, montrant symboliquement ce que Catherine Grenier appelera « l’artiste à deux têtes », au sujet des duos artistiques. Au départ ils sont physiquement attachés en tant qu’être à deux têtes. Les
cheveux se dénouent petit à petit.
Ces exemples sont des mises en scène symboliques de l’artiste-double, aussi bien que des lieux d’expérimentation, de pouvoir donner deux corps à une idée. Le miroir, de son côté, est parfaitement symbolique du double. Toutefois Abramovic et Ulay ne font aucun rapport à la double personnalité. Ils ne se considèrent pas en tant qu’artiste singulier, symbiotique. Ils abandonnent en revanche une partie d’eux même à des fins d’altruisme. D’après Ulay, ils doivent restreindre leurs personnalités, fondés chacune sur un ego très fort. D’après Marina, leurs performances était un lieu où ils vivaient tous deux l’état d’esprit partagé de leur « meilleur ego », chose qui était « difficile à maintenir ».
Dans Balance Proof (1977), Abramovic et Ulay ont occulté chacun la vision de l’autre par une réflexion d’eux-mêmes. Ils se tiennent nus, de chaque côté d’un miroir vertical sans tain qu’ils maintiennent en équilibre. Quand l’un d’entre eux s’en va, il provoque la chute du miroir, un éclatement symbolique de l’équilibre. Dans une épreuve, où leur force est doublée, ils mettent en scène une sorte d’épuisement frustrant, paradoxale : Expansion in Space (Documenta 1977). Ils utilisent la force de leurs deux corps pour pousser une colonne mobile, centimètre après centimètre, en se jetant dessus. Ulay abandonne au bout d’une demi-heure.
En 1977, Abramovic et Ulay ont performé Light/Dark (1977, Cologne, Internationale Kunst-Messe), plus agressifs : ils se sont agenouillés l’un en face de l’autre, les visages éclairés par deux lampes puissantes. Ils se sont frappés mutuellement le visage jusqu’au moment où l’un d’entre eux s’arrête; ici, au bout de vingt minutes.
Marina Abramovic et Ulay ont également fait une série de performances prenant des positions contraires, incarnant les rôles masculins ou féminins, où chacun exécutait une tâche différente, projetant un sentiment d’absence d’égard pour leur interdépendance. Déjà, dans une première performance en 1976, ils montraient l’impossibilité de se mettre, et de parler, à la place de l’autre dans Talking about similarity (« parlant de la similarité »). Marina tentait de répondre aux questions des spectateurs à la place d’Ulay. Ulay était assis seul, la bouche ouverte, avant qu’Abramovic l’a remplacé. Elle tentait alors de répondre aux questions des spectateurs au sujet de l’action d’Ulay. Quand elle répondait par erreur en son nom propre, elle partait. Ils jouaient des rôles inversés de parole masculine et de silence féminine.
Tous les relations-works sont situées entre deux pôles le masculin et le féminin. Ils parlaient d’eux-mêmes comme d’un « androgyne ». La notion d’androgynie s’est popularisée de la proposition féministe selon laquelle il devait être possible d’égaliser les rôles masculin et féminin traditionnels. Marina et Ulay adressaient cette problématique individuellement et puis en couple. Après Relation in mouvement (septembre 1977, 10ème Biennale de Paris), ils se sont fait chacun tatouer sur un de leurs doigts le nombre 3, chiffre par excellence de l’hermaphrodisme. Pour Marina « l’être humain parfait est hermaphrodite, car c’est moitié femme moitié homme, mais aussi un univers complet ... Nous sommes homme-et-femme ».
Dans Incision (1978), Ulay nu, attaché à un mur par une courroie élastique, tente sans relâche d’avancer vers les spectateurs tandis qu’Abramovic, en silence, marque l’endroit qu’il atteint.
Dans Installation One (mars 1979) , Ulay est étendu, nu, en érection, sur un plancher, et regarde fixement le plafond tandis qu’Abramovic assise, également nue, regarde dans la direction opposée. Ils sont tous les deux intensément et mentalement concentrés.
Leur lien parait d’autant plus dissoulu dans Go...Stop...Bach...Stop, (Melbourne, mai 1979): Ulay avance dans l’espace, obéit à des ordres prononcés avec force tandis qu’Abramovic, assise sur une chaise au centre, compte des plumes de cygne à haute voix.
Dans The Brink (1979 à Sydney): Marina et Ulay marchent lentement en avant et en arrière le long d’un mur, Ulay au soleil et Abramovic dans l’ombre, métaphore des relations masculin-féminins. C’est la dernière trace de la métaphore de l’ombre et son double, et la présence de dualisme est déjà en train de disparaître de leurs performances.
En 1980 ils mettent en scene ce qui est potentiellement la mort du couple, dans Rest Energy (1980 Video, 4:12 min, noir/blanc). Debouts face à Abramovic tends un grand arc tandis qu’Ulay vise son coeur avec la flèche. Ils sont immobiles, tous deux penchés en arrière, pendant plusieurs minutes. Un microphone amplifie le son de leurs battements de coeur. Lesquelles deviennent de plus en plus rapides à mesure que la tension et l’adrénaline augmente. Ainsi l’énergie caché dans l’immobilité impertubables (Marina Abramovic) de leurs corps est révélé.
Ici, leur inter-dépendance est donc présente, dans un ensemble où ni l’un ni l’autre pourrait s’absenter.
La performance Communist Body, Capitalist Body (parfois appellée Communist body, Faschist body 1979) met en oeuvre non seulement leurs différences de sexe mais aussi leurs origines. Les deux artistes se sont endormis, sur des matelas séparés. Onze personnes connues d’Abramovic et Ulay étaient invitées dans une salle privée d’Amsterdam, à 23 heures 45, (le 29 nov. 1979). Ils ont trouvé les deux corps des artistes silencieux et immobiles, comme des objets. La responsabilité à toute action était abandonnée aux spectateurs. Deux petites tables à proximité étaient recouvertes de nourriture et de boissons provenant soit de pays socialistes soit de pays capitalistes, invitant les spectateurs à une célébration qui ne peut qu’exclure les artistes. C’est une performance qui met en scène la différence des origines culturelles et idéologiques de Marina et Ulay en même temps qu’elle est un hommage au Rashomon de Kurosawa. Les références aux relations entre differents cultures, vont gagner petit à petit de l’importance dans leur travail. Les oeuvres du couple glissent en outre vers l’immobilité de leurs corps, dans des sortes de tableaux « morts-vivants », dans lesquels s’inserent des objets symboliques. Les oeuvres d’après 1980 sont des performances quasi-ritualisées, chargées d’une symbolique plus philosophique, culturelle, et politique.
- ABRAMOVIC Marina & ULAY, Relation in Space, 1976.
Relation dans l’espace
Dans un espace donné
Deux corps se croisent de façon répétitive, se heurtant
A plus grande vitesse, ils se bousculent
Durée : 58 minutes
Biennale de Venise. 1976
Dans la première performance de 58 minutes, Relation in Space, présentée en juillet 1976 à la Biennale de Venise, Abramovic/Ulay courent nus l’un vers l’autre en partant d’un point opposé d’une pièce, se touchent en se croisant et répètent ce mouvement, alors que les deux corps se heurtent et que l’un (Marina) tombe sous la violence de l’impact, jusqu’à ce qu’enfin les forces viennent à manquer aux deux artistes. Une caméra vidéo statique enregistre les mouvements des corps au milieu de la pièce.
Relation in Space (présenté à la biennale de Venise en 1976), est une performance où les deux artistes se sont lancés l’un contre l’autre, les corps nus, répétitivement pendant une heure. Leurs corps nus se croisent, s’effleurent, se touchent et se frottent. Ils se percutent l’un sur l’autre selon un rythme de plus en plus rapide, et de plus en plus vite, jusqu’à ce qu’ils s’entrechoquent de manière violente.
- ABRAMOVIC Marina & ULAY, Talking about Similarity, 1976.
Cette performance a eu lieu le 30 novembre 1976 à Amsterdam. Ulay est assis, bouche ouverte, face au public et émet un son continu jusqu’à ce que sa bouche s’assèche et qu’il doive la fermer, ne produisant plus alors aucun son. Puis, à l’aide d’une aiguille et d’un fil, il fait deux points pour coudre sa bouche et reste encore un moment assis avant de quitter la scène. Marina Abramovic prend sa place et répond à diverses questions des spectateurs sur sa relation avec Ulay. Elle dit oui à la question de savoir si elle s’identifie avec Ulay et le justifie, car elle aussi pourrait fermer sa bouche. Lorsqu’elle se trompe, c’est-à-dire qu’elle répond sans avoir été questionnée, elle quitte à son tour la scène.
Pendant les 45 minutes que dure leur jeu, les deux artistes prennent une décision réfléchie, exprimée toutefois de manière différente: tandis que Ulay se coud la bouche, Marina se contente de fermer brusquement la sienne. Mais l’objectif reste le même: devenir muet. Les comportements masculin/féminin sont ici permutés: c’est la femme qui fait une déclaration et l’homme qui se tait. En un sens, cette performance constitue l’ouverture des travaux de Body-Art de UIay/Abramovic, dans la mesure où les artistes optent clairement pour un langage et une expérience du corps, par des images et des actions qui se passent de mots.
- ACCONCI Vito, Under-History Lessons, 1976. (vidéo)
- ADLER Billy
— Billy Adler, « Billy Adler and the Charmin Toilet Paper Squeeze », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.3, v.1, Winter 1976, pp.12-13.
- ALLEN Terry
— Claire Copley, « The art of Terry Allen: A Personal Evaluation », LAICA Journal, no.12, October/November 1976, pp.12-16. Excerpt:
« It was at this time, and through this work, that the possibility of using theatre to combine visual and narrative elements arose. Theatre is an umbrella term. Under it, Terry can collect and use anything he wishes. The work can thus be seen as a stage on which something occurs. The something can be anything. Whether it occurs between people or objects or both is a coincidence of time and location. It is the sense of the coincidence of things existing separately in the world, in a given time and place that is the core of Terry’s concept of theatre. By virtue of this coincidence, the elements take on new meaning and are endowed with new reality. Time added to this process, creates the constant motion that is integral to the work. »
- ALMEIDA Helena, Tela Habitada, 1977.
- ALPERT Richard, Sylph, La Mamelle Arts Center, San Francisco, November 1976.
Description: « This piece took place in a darkened gallery space. Around two of the corners that protrude into the space there were two green tape lights that circumscribed 270-degree circular areas on the floor. In the larger circle the tape light was facing inward and in a smaller one it was facing outward. A small monitor was placed on the floor within the smaller. During the performance it showed a close-up view of my hands and arms cranking a generator while drawing with it against a white panel. In the larger circle, a tiny light bulb connected to the generator behind the wall illuminated the color photograph on my driver’s license. The rhythmic sounds of the drawing process were audible from behind the wall. An invisible element of the piece took the form of several women having been asked to come to the performance heavily perfumed giving the space a scented odor. A perfumed card was sent as an announcement for the piece. »
— Mir Bahadur, « Richard Alpert: Illuminating the Art Process », Artweek, v.7, December 18, 1976. Review of Alpert’s performance, Sylph.
- ALPERT Richard, The Work Behind The Image, Benicia Art Center, Benicia, Ca., 1976.
This piece was performed in a stairwell between the first and second floors of a building. The piece was visible from only two separate viewpoints. The first view was of a paper-covered doorway to this stairwell in the first floor entryway of the building. The other, on the second floor, was visible only through a ten inch pool of water suspended in clear vinyl above the stairwell. My activity consisted of generated light from a small bulb hung midway between myself and the pool of water. The performance lasted one hour.
- ANGELO Nancy, Nun & Deviant, 1976. Videotape with sound, 15 mins., b/w.
Two aberrant female archetypes – nun and deviant – reveal themselves in a close-up, confessional mode. These alter ego manifest themes of guilt, anger, unworthiness, conflict, struggle, survival. In the background, the tinkle and crash of breaking dishes provides autobiographical white noise.
- ANT FARM, Automerica: A Trip Down US Highways from WORLD War II to the Future.
Written by Chip Lord; book design by Chip Lord and Curtis Schreier. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1976. Excerpt:
« This book examines the automobile in the post-War years in America from our own perspectives. The design of cars, the romance of car culture, the business of Detroit, and the paradox of the sometimes misty, something piercing eyes. For us it’s an ambivalent relationship, which this book expresses. The freedom of movement that has been genetically programmed into our blood is as old as the human quest for knowledge and new experience. The funny, deluxe, bulbous cars that have been sold to us to satisfy that need are still funny and beautiful, but their chaotic legacy seems basic to riddles that ask: can man control technology’s domination of nature? Can man control the products of his own collective mind? Today the automobile stands at the center of these contradictions. Did the automobile and the men who made it hijack America into a dead-end freeway?
This book is not a picture book of cars, although it is full of pictures. Nor is it an academic indictment of our prevalent system of transportation based on private mobility; other authors have done that quite well. It is a book thats courts ambiguity and admits to the unpredictability of man’s needs – like the car itself: once it was a gadget, now it is a way of life, in the future it may be merely a strange anachronism.
The book was fun to do because the vast amount of research material – from ads in Life and car brochures to the ARCO idea campaign and energy crisis new clippings – all of it was entertaining. Maybe there’s the solution: to remove cars from the realm of function and fix on them a sole future role of entertainment. It will be hard for the guy who lives in a isolated suburb, forty miles from his office and connected to the outside world only by his car and his television set, but it may have to be done. We must ‘make way for progress’ and the myth of the automobile is taking up too much room in our culture.
Happy motoring! »
- ANTIN Eleanor, The Adventures of a Nurse (Parts I and II). Adventures as a Nurse, a paper-doll melodrama, 1976, 65 min, color, sound
Nurse Eleanor is the heroine of a paper-doll melodrama, in which she has a succession of romantic encounters with a dying poet, a biker, a doctor, a french ski bum, and an anti-war Senator.
Part I: The artist, in the role of a nurse, fantasizes on romantic themes, using a set of foot-high, hand-painted paper dolls as actors. A fantasy within a fantasy. The « Nurse Eleanor » paper doll performs as a surrogate self for Nurse Eleanor Antin and is the much put-upon but brave heroine of a succession of romances with a dying poet, a biker, and a doctor.
Part II: « Nurse Eleanor’s » romantic odyssey continues with two new lovers — a French ski bum and an anti-war senator.
— Eleanor Antin, « Untitled », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.39-40.
— Sandy Ballatore, « Eleanor Antin: Battle of the Bluffs », Artweek, v.7, February 7, 1976, p.7. Review of Antin’s performance as the exiled King of Solana Beach, at the Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art, January 17.
— Jonathan Crary, « Eleanor Antin; Clock Tower Gallery, New York; Exhibit », Arts Magazine, v.50, March 1976, p.8. Review of Antin’s live performance and videotape, The Adventures of a Nurse, presented January 15-31, 1976, at the Clock Tower. Excerpt:
« For the past few years most of Antin’s work has been connected with her creation of four alter egos for herself and the elaboration of the lives of these invented ‘selves’ through a variety of media, particularly live performance. The four roles which she alternatively assumes are a King, a Ballerina, a Black Movie Star, and a Nurse. Each role is an actualization of some fantasy which she amplifies with successive presentations, creating an episodic narrative structure of indeterminate length. One feature of the work is its duration over a period of years and part of its content is how her ongoing articulation of the fictive roles contends with and modifies her identity as Eleanor Antin, California artist. A kind of congruence emerges between this narration of her fantasies, the detailing of these imaginative portraits, and her own autobiography. »
— Mary Stofflet, « Eleanor Antin: An Interview by Mail », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.3, v.1, Winter 1976, pp.22-23. Excerpts:
MS: Do you do performance specifically for the purpose of making a video piece? For example, The Ballerina and the Bum as a videotape gives no sense of an audience nearby. On the other hand, The King’s Meditation, which I saw at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor, was clearly not done as a performance meant for taping.
EA: I do live performances for a particular space, time and audience. I do my performances on video only for an audience that will subsequently look at it on a small tv screen, probably in the dark, or semi-dark room, hopefully sprawling confortably on the floor or on pillows. Once I used an audience on video (in The Little Match Girl Ballet) but I used them deliberately to set up a Degas-like space from which the narrative I was spieling out would eventually take me far away. So the story I was telling overflowed its banks and flooded the screen, taking over, not unlike Terry’s spoons and faucets…
MS: Your videotapes are among the most widely accessible I’ve seen. They provoke laughter, sadness, pity – a whole range of human reactions. Is this a conscious effort to stay away from the elitism and mysteriousness often found in performance and video art?
EA: No, people often consider me a didactiv artist but I don’t. I’m only doing what seems reasonable to me. My interests in making video are primarily narrative. I do think the narrative experience is a basic human need. I think sometimes that it acts on the same principles as dreams, as a kind of re-ordering of the world, putting it together in different ways, just for the hell of it, to try out those ways and paths we discarded in favor of the ones we took. For every step you take in this world you could have taken several others instead. They sit there haunting us, those discarded steps. Narrative is a kind of exorcism, a trying-on of the ‘might-have-beens’, the discards, the losers. You let them in for a while and they stop haunting you. Maybe…
MS: How do you see your involvement with video developing over the next few years, if you plan that far ahead?
EA: Narrative, and more narrative. At this time, I’m making my Nurse Tapes. She, the nurse, plays with paper dolls she’s made herself. They are the actors in these videotapes. They have adventures, fall in love with the Eleanor doll, get discarded by her, kill themselves or whatever. You might say it’s narrative starting on a course of regressions. My invention (the nurse) invents her own inventions (the paper dolls). »
- BAR-ON Adina, Performance Julie M. Gallery, Tel Aviv, 1976. b/w photo.
The performances of Adina Bar-On, a performance artist whot is still active today, were based in the 1970s on emotions communicated through movement, facial expression and vocal emanations combined with autobiographical flashbacks. These works aimed at producing a subtle expressive frequency, which was meant to enable the viewer to go beyond the regular viewing parameters of a ‘‘performance’’. The moments of emptiness and embarrassment were meant to create a singular happening, which involved audience reactions. Due to their direct, unmediated quality, Adina Bar-On did not believe her performances could be captured on film.
- BERTLMANN Renate, Tierna pantomima, 1976.
- BLANCHARD Nancy, Encounters with Michael Caine, 1976. Audiotape, 15 mins.
- BOB & BOB, « It’s Bob & Bob: Calling Beverly Hills! », Evening outlook, July 24, 1976, p.8A. Text and 4 examples of Bob & Bob’s ‘Memorandum’ work.
- BUCHANAN Nancy, Holste, Newport: Harbor Art Museum, 1976. Catalogue of an exhibition.
- BUCHANAN Nancy, Wolfwoman, 1976.
— « Wolfwoman », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, fall 1976, pp.67-68. Photo and documentation of work, Wolfwoman.
- BURDEN Chris
— Robert Horvitz, « Chris Burden », Artforum, v.14, May 1976, pp.24-31. Major article on Chris Burden, includes several photo illustrations of his works.
— Dorothy Seiberling, « The Art-Martyr », New York Magazine, May 24, 1976, pp.44-46. lengthy article on Chris Burden with photo documentation of works. From a historical perspective, discusses Burden’s work from 1971 to 1976.
- BURDEN Chris, Chris Burden 71-73, reviewed by Roselee Goldberg, Art-Rite, no.14, Winter 1976-77, p.40.
Excerpt: « Burden’s book is a pictorial documentary of private rituals, not unlike those of ancient Indian sects who hang themselves from palm trees suspended only by metal hooks pierced into the skin of their backs, or who run barefoot through burning ashes and broken glass. Burden’s painful exercises are there for the record… »
- BURDEN Chris, Chris Burden promo, 1976. Videotape, 30 secs.
Intended as a tongue-in-cheek piece. Series of famous names in art history flashes on screen, culminating with ‘Chris Burden’.
- BURDEN Chris, « 100 M.P.H./100 M.P.G. », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.37-38.
- BURDEN Chris, Garcon, Hansen Fuller Gallery, San Francisco, Ca., August 3-7, 1976.
« The week of August 3-7, I served capuccino and expresso to visitors to the Hansen Fuller Gallery. I did this during gallery hours, 10:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., for an entire week, serving more than 300 cups of coffee. The gallery made no announcement of the performance, and a group painting show opened concurrently with my piece.
I installed a white mini-bar, complete with capuccino machine, demitasse cups, expresso spoons, etc., on a wall near the entrance to the gallery. Attired in a gray cotton orderly’s jacket and carrying a silver tray, I approached entering visitors and politely asked them if they would care for either a capuccino or an expresso, which I would serve them while they looked at the paintings. My attire and demeanor were such that only a handful of people out of the hundreds who attended the show recognized me as ‘Chris Burden’. »
— Chris Burden, « Garcon », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.6/7, v.2, 1977, pp.14-15. Text and photo documentation of his work for the Hansen Fuller Gallery, San Francisco, August 3-7, 1976.
- BURDEN Chris, Garden, 1976.
- BURDEN Chris, Natural Habitat, 1976 (with Alexis Smith).
- BURDEN Chris, Poem For L.A., 1976. Videotape, 30 secs. Titles and reading of poem alternate on the screen: ‘Science has failed’, ‘Heat is life’, and ‘Time kills’.
- BURDEN Chris, Shadow, 1976.
- BURDEN Chris, Untitled composite tape including 3 pieces for television broadcast, 1973-76. Videotape, 4 mins., color.
- BURDEN Chris, « Do You Believe in Television? », Calgary, Alberta: Alberta College of Art Gallery, 1976.
Catalogue documentating Burden’s work performed at A.C.A. Gallery on February 18, 1976. Introductory essay by Brian Dyson. Description of event, excerpt:
« The event ‘Do You Believe in Television?’ took place in a stairwell connecting different levels of the parking lot adjacent to the College of Art. Three televisions monitors were suspended from three levels as indicated. A fixed television camera and two quartz lights were suspended at the lowest level. In addition a microphone was connected to the speaker on one ot the monitors. Chris Burden instigated the event from the bottom of the stairwell, sitting underneath the first intermediate level and completely hidden from the public. The camera was focused on a black tape cross stuck to the floor at Burden’s feet. This image was visible on all three monitors when the public was admitted. The only source of light on the upper levels was provided by the television monitors. A trail of straw about three inches deep startedd from just in front of the black cross and wound its ways up the staircase to the top level. The audience was admitted at 7:45 p.m.. About 100 people attended, gathering around the television monitors on the three levels. At 8:00 Burden picked up the microphone and asked ‘Do You Believe in Television?’ He then struck a match, held it over the centre of the cross for a few seconds and then proceeded to light the straw. The flames slowly spread along the trail leading up the stairwell. The image on the television monitors remained unchanged. As the straw continued to burn the stairwell began to fill with smoke and breathing became very uncomfortable. The audience remained, watching the image on the monitors. At about 8:30 p.m. the Fire Department arrived. »
- BURDEN Chris, Prelude to 220, or 110, sept. 1976.
- BURTON Scott, Pair Behavior Tableaux, 1976 (tableaux vivants) Solomon S. Guggenheim, NYC.
- CADÉRÉ André, photo. Gianfranco Gorgoni, 1976, NYC.
- CADÉRÉ André, Plaza San Marco, Venise, 1976.
- CAGE John, Writing Through Finnegan’s Wake, 1976.
— Marylin Nix & Barbara Burden, « Carp: Documentation », LAICA Journal, no.12, October/November 1976, pp.8-11. Calendar of past events that were sponsored by Carp from March 21-August 11, 1976, with photo documentation of selected works.
- CAZAZZA Monte & GAGLIONE Bill, ILLARDO Ron, ROSSMAN Joel, Futurist Sintesi 591 Gallery, San Francisco, Ca., 1976.
- CHADWICK Helen, Domestic Sanitation, 1976.
The human body was a central theme for this provocative artist.. In her earlier works, Helen Chadwick (1953-1996) created female body parts out of soft materials. In the seventies she developped performances based on objects. In ‘‘Domestic Sanitation’’, the participants wear latex body casts; and for her performance ‘‘In the Kitchen’’ (1977), Chadwick created gendered kitchen utilities. At the beginning of the eighties, Chadwick began using photography and sculpture to depict her own body. In 1988, she decided to leave the female body and turn to human and animal body parts and innards. Her more famous works such as ‘‘Cacao’’ (1994) (a chocolate fountain) and ‘‘Piss Flowers’’ (1991-1992) (plaster casts of urine patterns in the snow) are characterised by sexual overtones. Chadwich died suddenly at an early age from a virus she contracted while working in a hospital.
– This video documents a live performance held in the summer of 1976. It was conceived for Helen Chadwick final degree show at Brighton Polytechnic. In the first part, entitled The Latex Glamour Rodeo, five women in grotesque rubber costumes act out bizarre beauty rituals in akind of beauty salon. The performance is without sound, but a radio show can be heard advertising beauty products in the background. In the second part, Bargain Bed Bonanza, four women – each half woman, half bed – appear and continue where part one left off. In the final part, we see a shop window filmed from the street, with the costumes on display and interested passers-by. Chadwick was concerned with the ideals projected onto female identity.
- COLETTE, In Memory of Ophelia and all those who died of Love, 1976, Berlin.
- COLETTE, Real Dream, 1976. environnement. NYC.
- COSTELLO Kevin, A Sojourn in the City, San Francisco, Ca., 1976
— Kevin Costello, « A Sojourn in the City », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, 1976, p.35. An idea by Kevin Costello.
- DARLING Lowell & SEGALOVE Ilene, Cauliflower Alley Tapes, 1976. Videotape, color.
— Lowell Darling & Ilene Segalove, « Hollywood Anthropology/‘Two Subjects from the Cauliflower Alley Tapes’ », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, pp.20-21.
— Ilene Segalove & Darling Lowell, « Hollywood Anthropoly/‘Two Sujects from the Cauliflower Alley Tapes’ », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, 1976, pp.20-21.
— Ruth Askey, « Going Down Cauliflower Alley », Artweek, v.8, March 5, 1977, pp.1, 16. Review of Lowell Darling and Ilene Segalove’s exhibition at the Long Beach Museum or Art on Hollywood’s Cauliflower Alley Club. The show included a 50 minutes videotape, The Cauliflower Alley Tapes, presenting video portraits of many club members, and an exhibition of memorabilia. Excerpt:
« The tape is part of a documentary and exhibition of fighting memorabilia focusing on Hollywood’s Cauliflower Alley Club, an organization of ex-boxers and wrestlers. Club members include both contenders and winners (nobody’s a loser here), whose careers also involved thousands of appearances as heavies in Hollywood detective and gangster films. The fifty-minute videotape is a trilogy based on the club member’s remembrances of the fight game, their Hollywood stories and their lives in general…
Darling says that they are body artists who sculpted each other’s bodies. »
- DE COINTET Guy, « Aimee S. McPh », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.57-58.
- DE COINTET Guy, At Sunrise a Cry Was Heard, 1976.
— Peter Frank, « Performance Diary », The SoHo Weekly News, April 1, 1976, p.18. Review of de Cointet’s work At Sunrise a Cry Was Heard, for his New York debut.
- DE COINTET Guy, Ethiopia, Barnsdall Park Theatre, Los Angeles, Ca., 1976.
A play, with music by Bob Wilhite. Performance: Mary Ann Duganne.
— Guy de Cointet, Ethiopia, University of California, Irvine, 1977. Videotape with sound, 40 mins., b/w. Videotaped outdoor performance. Three actors soliloquize and converse in a disjointed, literary style. The set and props are spare and geometric, contributing to the experimental, abstracted sense of the flow of language.
- DUNCAN John, Free, 1976. Videotape with sound, 9 1/2 mins, color.
Readings from the Marquis de Sade counterpoint the image of a knife blade slicing across the palm of a hand, back and forth until blood flows.
- DUNCAN John, Right, 1976. Videotape with sound, 14 mins., color.
Images of crisis. Man paces a small room like a trapped creature, alternately cringing and shouting. Soundtrack accompanies with readings from noted works on liberation.
- DUNCAN John, « Untitled », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.21-22.
- DUPUY Jean, THREE EVENINGS ON A REVOLVING STAGE. Judson Church. NYC. 1976.
- EXPORT Valie, Encirclement, 1976.
- FLETCHER Leland
— David Hett, « Leland Fletcher: Dept. of Art Works », Heirs, no.10, v.6, Winter 1975/76, pp.8-13. Photos with text in English, Spanish and Japanese.
— « Leland Fletcher: Department of Art Works », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, 1976, pp.36, 72-73. Excerpt:
« The Department of Art Works serves to function as a means of confrontation by changing an area and defining that change in a unique and unusual manner. Fletcher’s choice of construction as his medium reflects the way society tends to relate to the earth – as a construction site, to be rearranged, buit upon, and shaped to fit a view of the world and our place in it. »
- FORTE Paul, Solar Transfer, 1976.
— « Solar Transfer, 1976 », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, 1976, pp.46-47. Four photographs from a performance, Solar Transfer.
- FORTE Paul, Something Without Time…, San Francisco La Mamelle Inc., 1976. Videotape, b/w.
- FOX Terry, 552 Steps through 11 Pairs of Strings, 16 Rose St., San Francisco, Ca., 1976. For and with Larry Fox.
— Terry Fox, « 522 Steps Through 11 Pairs of Strings », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, v.2, Winter 1977, pp.20-21.
- FOX Terry, The Labyrinth of Chartres, 1976, Full stereo audiotape, 95 mins.
- FOX Terry, The Lunar Rambles, New York, 1976. Videotape, 4 1/2 mins., color.
Five locations in NYC (videotapes of the performances shown during one-person exhibition at the Kitchen, NYC.
— Ingrid Wiegland, « The Lunar Rambles of Terry Fox », Soho Weekly News, June 17, 1976.
- FOX Terry, Timbre, 1976, Amphitheatre, Mount Tamalpais, California. Videotape, 30 mins., b/w.
— Terry Fox, Timbre, Mt. Tamalpais amphitheater, Ca;, 1976. Fox performing a prompter’s box on a string instrument of found objects. Fox hired an airplane to fly over the performance and tuned his instrument to the propeller pitch.
— Terry Fox, « Timbre », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.4, v.1, Spring 1976, pp.10-11. A brief explanation by Fox about his work, Timbre, with photos by Tom Marioni. The text:
« ‘Timbre’: A performance for two instruments: a homemade instrument strung with piano wire, and a Cessna 172 engine airplane. During a period of two hours the airplane made six passes over the performance area out of sight of the spectators. The instrument emitted a continuous drone for four and one half hours and was tuned to the propeller pitch of the airplane. March 1976. Sponsored by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
The stone amphitheatre on Mount Tamalpais is nineteen hundred and fifty feet above the ground floor of the San Francisco Museum of Art, and approximately twenty miles to the Northwest of my studio, which is six blocks from the museum. The amphitheatre was built in the thirties by the Conservation Corps on a natural, acoustically rich meadow which had been the site of open theatre since the early nineteen hundreds. The theatre is near the top of the Mount Tamapais, a State Park Preserve, and overlooks the San Francisco Bay. The stage area is a semicircle of earth with a flat stone in its center and small trees as a backdrop and reflecting surface. The stage prompter’s box is hidden from view, recessed under the first tiers of seats, four feet below the surface of the stage. It is designed so that sound issuing from it is directed to the rock in the center of the stage and is inaudible from the seating area of the theatre.
I’m looking at the model of the prompter’s box next to my typewriter. It’s made of the same stone as the actual box, only scaled down. It’s ten inches long, six inches wide and six inches deep in the center, with a two inch stone bench running around three walls of its interior, the fourth wall open and facing me. The ceiling is flat and made of concrete. There is a drain in the recessed floor, but it is plugged by a small rubber mat and the bottom has been filled with an inch of water to create a smooth, flat, reflective surface. A thin wooden box, eight inches long, rests with each end on a stone seat so that it is suspended over the water. It has four metal wires stretched taut along its length, passing over wooden bridges, creating an instrument. A tiny figure is standing in the water and plays the box instrument, striking the strings with a stick the size of a sliver. As I watch, my heart makes my body rock back and forth. I can feel a low pulsating in my stomach. I begin to hear an engine idling on the street below my open fire door. I live in the middle of the City. I live on a wood floor, smooth and tight. The brick walls, compressed by their own weight, vibrate with the low pulsations from the idling engine. I can hear other objects in the room moving in sympathetic vibration with the pulses from the engine. The spilled salt on the table forms itself small, writhing mounds. The wooden floor is strung with piano wires stretched taut over wooden bridges. The wires begin to hum, one the overtones of the other. My floor is a resonating box. My brother’s room, below is a sound box, reflecting and amplifying the pulses back against his ceiling, my floor. The window rattle, the empty glass on the table begins to sing a low, deep note. As I watch the figure in the model, the rumbling of the idling engine becomes a low but discernable note and an object enters my field of vision from the left, just behind my shoulder. A tiny airplane makes a pass over the model, far behind it, under the shelf and near the wall. The drone from the instrument in the model is in tune with the propeller pitch of the airplane and for a few seconds they synchronize. Then, as the plane moves through the overtones of its fundamental and disappears from my field of vision, I once again become involved in the sound of the instrument. The sound hole of the model, of the prompter’s box, is directed toward me, toward the central city. It is surrounded by tiny people, all making so much noise that it is difficult to hear the instrument. As I lean forward and strain to catch the sound, I again perceive a low pulse in my stomach and again I am aware of a tiny object moving into my line of vision, this time from the right, near my ear. My mind is in the empty drawer of a wooden dresser. I don’t need it. The sound vibrates my eardrum, disturbs the labyrinth of my inner ear, vibrates my abdomen, rattles my skeleton, physical and beyond my will. The object enters my field of vision and I can’t see that it’s a fly. »
— Carl Loeffler, « Terry Fox Performance », Front, no.3, v.1, March 1976, p.1. Text with photo describing Fox’s Work, Timbre, performed at Mt. Tamalpais amphitheatre, March 13, 1976 at 3 p.m. Text:
« Timbre: 1. the characteristic quality of sound that distinguishes one voice or musical instrument from another: it is determined by the harmonics of the sound and is distinguished from the intensity and pitch; 2. in phonetics, the degree of resonance of a voiced sound, especially of a vowel.
Terry Fox: physical trauma/dreams of the blind/steer manure, white strings, fish, levitation/Dusseldorf and Beuys/winos in doorways with tattooed bellies/Chartres/burning candles dripping wax/rituals/transcendental homage.
Timbre Performance: Mountain amphitheatre-Fox standing in prompter’s box. His back facing the audience. Unassuming. Before him a stringed instrument of found objects: wooden bench, box, clamps, bowl (stainless), and steel strings. Fox is playing the internal space-generating sound on sound on sound. This basic action continues for five hours. Subtitles: Fox hired an airplane to fly over the performance six times and tuned his instrument to the propeller pitch; the prompter’s box attempts to duplicate the acoustics of a nearby cistern. »
- FRIEDMAN Ken, Five Events and One Sculpture, Sacramento: Stan Lunetta, 1976.
— Broadsheet provides brief notes for events by Friedman.
- FRIEDMAN Ken, Sociology of Art: An Aspect of the Special Reality of the Art World, San Diego: Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation for United States International University, 1976.
- FRIEDMAN Ken
— Marilyn Ekdahl Ravicz, Ken Friedman: The World That Is, The World That Is To Be, Self-published, .
- GAULKE Cheryl, Cinderella, 1976.
- GEBERT Hansik, Je suis..., 1976. Performance privée.
- GEBERT Hansik. Robinson, 1976.
- GERZ Jochen, The Centaur’s Difficulty When Dismouting from the Horse, 1976. Biennale de Venise.
- GUDMUNDSSON Sigudur, Ohne Titel, 1976.
- HAMMER Barbara, Multiple Orgasm, 1976 (film).
- HARRISON Helen & Newton, Meditations on the Condition of the Sacramento River, Its Delta and the Bays at San Francisco.
— Helen & Newton Harrison, « Meditations », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1., Fall 1976, pp.33-34. « A proposal to the Floating Museum at San Francisco entitled, Meditations on the Condition of the Sacramento River, Its Delta and the Bays at San Francisco, a work in three parts, five mediums and three time frames. »
- HERSHMAN Lynn
— Kitty Larkin, « Window Stopping », New York Daily News, October 29, 1976, p.56.
— Mary Stofflet, « Some Notes on a Conversation with Lynn Hershman, Director of the Floating Museum », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.4, v.1, Spring 1976, p.17. Excerpt:
« The Floating Museum recycles space. The idea involves recycling, using found environments in ways that they haven’t been used. Artists are commissioned and paid. The artist finds a site and the floating museum makes the arrangements for the site, the materials and the publicity… The floating museum is museum expansion without the cost of facilities. We are interested in investigating ideas attitudes of all kinds. »
- HERSHMAN Lynn, The Bonwit Teller Window, 1976.
— Moira Roth, « An interview with Lynn Hershman », LAICA Journal, no.17, January/February 1978, pp.18-24. (Errata-three additional photos appear in Journal no.19). Excerpt:
« MR: …In addition to the Floating Museum, you did all that work on getting Christo’s Running Fence together. But back to your own work, The Bonwit Teller Window, which you did in 1976…
LH: When you walked by on 57th Street, you would see a recreation of my Chelsea Hotel room. The 57th Street side on Bonwith Teller dealt with the past generally. So the Chelsea Hotel room window had 1973 newspapers and calendars. There were mannequins in a specially constructed bed watching television as they had in the Chelsea Hotel room. The bed had no right angles and gave a feeling of depth. There was the same wallpaper I used earlier on the walls. An X was painted on the street so that people walking by could stand on the X, and be put on the television set that the mannequins were watching. The people on the street were, in effect, put back in time…
Then we started on the 5th Avenue side of Bonwit Teller, the window which dealt with the present time. The first window dealt with cosmetics and it sold comestics. it also was about an identity change, a twenty minute identity transformation to show how one can change… The next set of 5th Avenue windows dealt with aging… ‘When I was young, I had everything’… ‘I wrapped my skin and hid my thoughts. As I grew older, I wanted more. I know now what I should have known then. Less is more.’ … Then we came to 56th Street, which with time and future time…
MR: You were asked out to Melbourne [Australia], and arranged to do Dream Weekend on a house that was a part of a Melbourne suburb’s project home?
LH: Well, I took the rooms in a house, used it to expand ideas of earlier works like the Dante Hotel or Re:Forming Familiar Environments, where I had invested the space of a home with a personality; each room told a story about the situation of living there as seen through the metaphors of the forms that were already there. In Australia, I wanted to deal with the dream states and various stages of consciousness. »
- HOOVER Nan, Videoperformance, 1976-77.
- HUBAUT Joël, Centre Kultur Kontrol Epidemia 47, 1976.
- IRELAND David, Reconstruction of a Portion of the Sidewalk at 500 Capp St., San Francisco, Ca., 1976.
Ireland restoring the sidewalk in front of his home with great gusto and in the art spirit.
— David Ireland, Bellingham, Washington: Whatcom Museum of Art and History, 1976. Catalogue of Ireland’s exhibition at the Whatcom Museum of Art and History, September-November 1976. Includes photo documentation, chronology, and interview by Trudi Richards.
- IRELAND David, The Restoration of a Portion of the Back Wall, Ceiling, and Floor of the Main Gallery of MOCA, Museum of Conceptual Art, San Francisco, Ca., 1976.
Tom Marioni commissions Ireland to restore a portion of MOCA. « It was making a painting, a very large painting, where the idea was clear… We had a photograph and all we had to do was make a photorealist painting. »
- IVEKOVIC Sanja, Instrukcije br 1, 1976.
Already in the 1970s Sanja Ivekovic (1949, Croatie) dealt explicitly with feminist and political themes in her photographs, videos, collages, performances and public art. She explores the image of women in communist society, especially in former Yugoslavia. She uses her body and her own personal photographs to question constructions of feminity and identity in commercial advertising, magazines and film and exposes the ways in which mass-mediated imagery and normative codes of behaviour influence our everyday lives.
In the performance, Instrukcije br 1 (Instruction No. 1), Sanja Ivekovic draws ‘instructional’ lines for a facial and neck massage on her skin using ink. The massage meant to beautify her face and neck is negated and reduced to ugly smudges on her skin.
- IVEKOVIC Sanja, Make Up-Make Down, 1976.
Make Up-Make Down is a film about the intimate ritual of putting on make-up. We see the upper body of a woman continually trying out new cosmetic products. Her face remains out of view and the camera focuses on her hands.
- IVEKOVIC Sanja, Opening, 1976. Otvorenje, Gelrija suvremene umjetnosti, Zagreb, Galerie Tommaseo, Italie.
Performed at the opening of the artist’s solo exhibition in the Zagreb of Contemporary Art (1976) and later at the Tommaseo Gallery in trieste (1977), Opening is Sanja Ivekovic’s first performances thematizing the artist’s body. It is an explicit definition of the artist as an embodied (female) subject, who not only shows her art as an intellectual/aesthetic practice displayed on gallery walls but whose body, subjectivity, feeling, or literally ‘‘flesh’’, is inseparable from her work. The artist exposed herself in the gallery space, where she met each visitor who entered the gallery, her mouth sealed with tape eliminating all verbal/intellectual communicantion and a stethoscope connecting her body to the speakers that transmitted the sound of her heartbeat. Her contact with each visitor was photographed and later exhibited, together with corresponding recording of the heartbeat.
- JOURNIAC Michel, Rituel d’identité aléatoire, 1976.
- JOURNIAC Michel, Rituel pour un autre, 1976.
- KAHLEN Wolf, Noli me videre, 1976.
- KAPROW Allan
— Sandy Ballatore, « The ‘Un-Artist’ Observed », Artweek, v.7, March 13, 1976, pp.1,16. Review of an exhibition at Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art in which Kaprow’s works reveal recent ‘activities’; included, Pasteups for 5 Booklets (done between 1973-76), a videotape and 2 films (Routine and Warm-Ups). « Kaprow’s booklet and films, as he explains it, “were made and assembled to illustrate a framework of moves upon which an action or set of actions could be based. They function somewhere between the artifice of a Hollywood movie and an instruction manual. The pictures explain the words and the words explain the pictures. Thus the conversion of an event into an exhibit or magazine article becomes a species mythology. »
— Jonathan Crary, « Allan Kaprow’s Activities », Arts Magazine, v.51, September 1976, pp.78-81. Article on Kaprow’s ‘activities’ since 1971; discussion of several ‘activities’ (Time Pieces, Routine, On Time, Take-Off, Satisfaction, Comfort Zones, Maneuvers) in relation to interactions that take place between participants during these ‘activities’. Excerpt:
« Kaprow calls them ‘Activities’ to distinguish them qualitatively from happenings. Intrinsic to his conception of them are: the absence of an audience of any kind, that it is carried out in a physical environment without art world or institutional associations, and that there be no documentation of the event. Each activity has been performed only once, although there is no reason why they’re couldn’t or shouldn’t be repeated. The scripts of many of the Activities have been released in book form with accompanying photographs of a simulated enactement of the work. »
— Allan Kaprow, « Non-Theatrical Performance », Artforum, v.14, May 1976, pp.45-51. Kaprow discusses the difference between theatrical and non-treatrical performance. Descrive a happening entitled Berlin Fever, arranged by Wolf Vostell in West Berlin, 1973, and a work by Kaprow, entitled 7 Kinds of Sympathy, that took place in Vienna, 1976. Excerpt:
« To understand non-treatrical performance as an idea, it might be worthwhile to consider the current state of the art profession in the West. Every artist has at her or his fingertips a body of information about what has been done and what is being done. There are certain options. Making performance of some sort is one of them. Making non-art into art is another. Non-art art, when applied to performing, means making a performance tant resemble what’s been called art performance. Art performance is that range of doing things called theater. An artist choosing to make non-art performances simply has to know what theatrical performances are and avoid doing them, quite consciously, at least in the beginning. The value in listing one’s options is to make things as conscious as possible; experimentaters can experiment more when they know what’s what. Accordingly, here is the ball game I perceive: an artist can
1) work within recognizable art modes and present the work recognizable art contexts
e.g. paintins in galleries
poetry in poetry books
music in concert halls, etc.
2) Work in unrecognizable art modes but present the work in non-art contexts
e.g. a pizza parlor in a gallery
a telephone book sold as poetry, etc.
3) work in recognizable art modes but present the work in non-art contexts
e.g. a ‘Rembrandt as an ironing board’
a fugue in an air conditioning duct
a sonnet as a want-ad, etc.
4) work in non-art modes but present the work as art in non-art contexts
e.g. perception tests in a psychology lab
anti-erosion terracing in the hills
garbage collecting, etc. (with the proviso that the art world knows about it)
5) work in non-art modes and non-art contexts but cease to call the work art, retaining instead the private consciouness that something it may be art, too.
e.g. systems analysis
social work in a ghetto
Any artist can locate him-or herself among these five options. Most belong to the first, very few occupy the fourth, and so far, I know of no one who fits the fifth who hasn’t simply dropped out of art entirely. (One runs into such post-graduates from time to time, but their easy testimonials to the good life lack the dense ironies of doublethink that would result from simultaneous daily participation in art and, say, finance.)
Performance in the non-treatrical sense that I am discussing hovers very close to this fifth possibility, yet the intellectual discipline it implies and the indifference to validation by the art world it would require, suggest that such a person would view art less as a profession than as a metaphor. At present such performance is generally non-art activity conducted in non-art contexts but offered as quasi-art to art-minded people. That is, to those not interested in whether it is or isn’t art, but who may be interested for other reasons, it need not be justified as an artwork. Thus, in a performance of 1968, which involved documenting the circumstances of many tire changes at gas stations in New Jersey, curious station attendants were frequently told it was a sociological study (which it was, in a way), while those in the cars knew it was also art. »
- KAPROW Allan, 7 Kinds of Sympathy, Vienne, Autriche, 1976. + Videotape, 8 mins., color.
— Allan Kaprow, Seven Kinds of Sympathy, self-published, arranged in cooperation with Gallerie Baecker, Bochum, Germany, 1976. Artist book. An activity that took place in Vienna, March 1976, sponsored by Vienna’s Museum of the 20th Century.
- KAPROW Allan, Activity Dokumente, Bremen: Kunsthalle, 1976.
Catalogue for an exhibition; contains photos of earlier works and programs of Refills, Basic Thermal Units, Sweet Wall, Sawdust, Meteorology, Third Routine, 7 Kinds of Sympathy, and Durations.
- KAPROW Allan, Maneuvers, Napoli: Framart/Studio, 1976. Artist book.
An activity « carried out by a small number of couples in the environ of Napoli, Italy, in March of 1976… sponsored by Framart Studio. »
« Baudelaire, writing of his friend the painter Delacroix, said admiringly that he was one of those men who could say ‘mon cher Monsieur’ twenty different ways.
Within the forms of polite behavior there is enough room to transmit numbers of complex messages. For instance, holding open a door for someone to pass through first is a simple kind of social grace that is learned almost universally. But between persons of the same sex or rank, there may be subtle jokeying for first or second position. Each position mau signify the superior one in a particular circumstance.
In cultures which are facing changes in women’s and men’s roles, the traditional male gesture of reaching for and holding open a door for a woman can meet with either rebuke or knowing smiles. In another ways, one can be ‘shown the door’ (be ordered to leave) with almost the same gross body movements as when being invited to go first. But there is never any doubt what is meant.
MANEUVERS is an exaggerated arrangement of such competitive, often funny, exchanges between two individuals as they go through doorways. With repeats and variations resembling slapstick movies that are played backwards and forwards, it may become unclear which side of a door is ‘in’ or ‘out’. After finding fifteen different doors to carry out these moves, the initial question of being first or second might seem problematical. Other levels of communication may become apparent to the partners.
MANEUVERS was carried out by a small number of couples in the environs of Napoli, Italy, in March of 1976. Each couple was independent of the others, but when the program was completed they met together to discuss their experiences. The activity was sponsored by Framart Studio. » (Allan Kaprow)
« 1 A and B
through a doorway
one before the other
the other, saying you’re first
passing through again
moving in reverse
the first, saying thank me
locating four more doors
2 A and B
locating still another door
both reaching to open it
saying excuse me
both reaching to close it
saying after you
passing through together
both reaching to close it
saying after you
locating four more doors
3 A and B
locating still another door
one before the other
the first, saying I’ll pay you
the second, accepting or not
locating four more doors
repeating routine »
- KAPROW Allan, Sweet Wall/Testimonials, Berlin: Edition Rene Block, 1976. Artist book.
Description of two Activities. For Sweet Wall a handful of people built a free-standing cinder block wall mortared with slices of bread and jam in a desolated area of Berlin close to the real Berlin Wall; the event took place November 1970 and was sponsored by Galerie Rene Block. Testimonials took place June 1976, in Berlin, sponsored by Galerie Rene Block in cooperation with the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst.
- KAPROW Allan, Testimonials. Self-published, arranged in cooperation with Gallerie Baecker, Bochum, Germany, 1976.
Artist book. An activity ‘carried out by a small group of couples in Warsaw, in April of 1976… sponsored by Galeria Foksal’.
« Everyone knows how people try to accommodate each other and do not help at all. The results are comical, frustrating or even insidious. Although the participants in such exchanges maintain a semblance of politeness, questions of intention hover in the backs of their minds: what did he really mean by that?, why did I agree to do this?, is she flattering me?, am I using my friend deviously? Perhaps, after all, such occasions are only pretexts to ask for attention.
In ‘Testimonials’ partners scrape, press, daub and print their marks on the environment and on one another. They also smooth them over, blow them up. Little is overly accomplished by their simple and slightly absurd engagement, but they must pay attention to each other in some way. When this happens, information of another kind may be exchanged.
‘Testimonials’ was carried out by a small group of couples in Warsaw, in April of 1976. They chose their own sites in the city, used their own apartments, scheduled their own time, and afterwards assembled together to share their experiences. The activity was sponsored by Galeria Foksal. » (Allan Kaprow)
- A, scraping a line in the ground
(with the edge of the shoes)
extending it for a considerable distance
B, following, smoothing it
A, asking occasionally is it deep enough
B, asking occasionally is it smooth enough
- A, pressing into B’s back
a track of finger marks
B, then asking are they gone
asking until A aswers yes
B, dotting on A’s back
a track of wet fingerprints
blowing on each point
asking A if it’s dry
progressing when A answers yes
‑ A, leaving a trail of footprint negatives
(dusting white powder around shoes)
extending it for a considerable distance
B, later, following tracks
brushing up each print
until trail is erased.
- KIPPER Harry (of the Kipper Kids), Up Yer Bum with a Bengal Lancer, 1976. Videotape, 25 mins., b/w.
- KITCHEN CENTER FOR VIDEO AND MUSIC, NYC
— The Kitchen Center For Video and Music 75-76, New York: The Kitchen, 1976. Catalogue documents activities sponsored by The Kitchen, New York during 1975-76 with an apppendix listing additional services provided by the Kitchen. California artists/events documented in the catalogue include: Terry Fox, Lunar Rambles, Southland Video Anthology tapes, TVTV (Top Value Television), Superbowl and Super Vision.
- KLAUKE Jürgen, Bi-Gott. Grüsse vom Vatikan, 1976. Cologne. Pfingsten. Intim-Performance.
- KLAUKE Jürgen, Das menschliche Antlitz im Spiegel soziologisch-nervoeser Prozesse, 1976-77. (photo)
- KLAUKE Jürgen, Die Lust zu leben, 1976.
- KLAUKE Jürgen, Philosophie der Sekunde, 1976-77.
- KLAUKE Jürgen, Rein Raus, 1976.
- KLAUKE Jürgen, Schussfolge-Schlussfolge, 1976. (photo)
- KLAUKE Jürgen, Viva Espana, 1976-79.
- KLICK Laurel
— Laurel Klick, « Untitled », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, p.73.
- KOS Paul, Sirens, 1976. Videotape, 5 mins., color.
- LACY Suzanne, Cinderella in a Dragster, Los Angeles, Ca., 1976.
— Suzanne Lacy, « Cinderella in a Dragster », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.15-16. Excerpt:
« The point I’m driving at is that everything continues to move including these words and even the memory of these changes and sometimes it is not as clear what something or someone is as where they are going or at least how they are getting there. In a dragster or a pumpkin? You see it doesn’t really matter whether Cinderella was a princess or a scullery maid except for the sake of the image you’re creating at the time, for soon that same image or the structure around which you have built your work collapses for you or you destroy it in order to build another up and the process repeats itself. In fact the sign of viability for an artist and that might include anybody is the ability to go through the collapse of one fairy tale and the creation of the next, that is, to not get stuck in the myth. It’s a time honored quotation in art which goes, ‘Don’t ever forget: what is a carriage today might be a pumpkin tomorrow’. »
- LACY Suzanne, Deformity-Perfection fall, 1976 (workshop).
- LACY Suzanne, Falling Apart, Los Angeles: Self-published, 1976. Artist book.
« A handmade book which weaves incidents of childhood injury, references to violence, and language into a search to uncover the personal sources of violence » from Women in the Printing Arts catalog.
- LACY Suzanne, Inevitable Association, 1976, Part I. Biltmore Hotel, Los Angeles, Ca.
— « Suzanne Lacy/Inevitable Associations », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.6/7, v.2, Winter 1977, pp.27-29, 48. Excerpt:
« The audience entered the room and found chairs arranged in three circles, about twenty chairs per circle, including one large red velvet chair upon which an old woman sat. After the audience was seated lights were lowered and a slide appeared on a screen which read, ‘I know what I know at thirty. I know about aging, as every woman does. I know only what I see of the aged’. “This is a documentation of Inevitable Associations, part One, What is seen…“ Slides from the first part of the piece (the transformation) were shown. The final slide read ‘Part two, what is experienced…’ The lights came on and in each circle the old woman began to talk about aging and her life since sixty-five, interacting with questions from the circle of people around her. »
— Frantisek Deak, « Onvermijdelijke Associates », Openbaarkunstbezit Kunstschrift, Holland, January 1978. Extensive article in Dutch, describes Lacy’s work Inevitable Associations that took place at the Billmore Hotel, Los Angeles, during a convention of the American Theatre Association in August 1976.
- LAUB Stephen
— Geoffrey Young, « Stephen Laub Talking with Geoffrey Young, July 26, 1976 », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, 1976, pp.13-16, 74. Excerpt:
GY: ‘Dog’ performance utilizes what bodies of imagery?
SL: The performance uses slides of dogs which I took at a dog show so most of them are pure-bred show dogs. During the performance, I project them on the wall and, like my other pieces, try to fit into each image. This piece is a self-analysis of my performance process. The slide projections have been determining the boundaries of my activities as well as the light in which I see myself. Dogs are involved in a similar process of socialization by being trained to obey certain rules of behavior. I wanted to draw that parallel…
GY: I like that aspect of self-reflection as an artist. Your work can also be seen as a continual comment on what it means to be an artist making art. It seems like you hit this ‘reflective surface’ head on in ‘starring’ which you performed at the San Francisco Museum of Art in March.
SL: Head on and head in. ‘Starring’ is a dialogue with a whole set of problems. What is the artist’s life, and where does that like come from? Am I living the artist’s life, and am I living up to that life, especially in terms of the Museum? I was interested in how the artists’ lives are processed into a narrative form. In the performance, I use the film ‘The Moon and Sixpence’ as an example of how the artist’s life is portrayed. George Sanders plays the role of an artist named Charles Strickland in a Hollywood Film based on Somerset Maugham’s novel, which itself is based on historical information about the life of Gauguin.
GY: So we’re dealing with the artist’s life at several significant romantic removes. It’s like you’re dealing with the perfect cliched situation, playing the artist’s role in a museum! How did you keep in step with the ‘artist’ as projected on the screen?
SL: I built a cart with wheels for the projector that could move back and forth as well as tilt up and down… The film was projected at 3/4 speed for the scenes in which Sanders was present. In the scenes in which he didn’t appear, she covered the lens and projected at normal speed. I wanted those parts to be like a radio program in which the audience imagines the action. The sound was on during the whole film so it changed from normal to low drunken-like speech…
…I was more involved with manifesting certain connections between myself and historical precedents and the boundaries that that dialectic imposes on an artist. During the performance, when I could keep in step with Sanders’ actions, I was, in effect, playing the part well and performing well in terms of the Museum as an artist. But when I couldn’t keep up, and there were a lot of fast cuts even at 3/4 speed. I wasn’t measuring up to the part and, in effect, I was failing in my role. »
- LAUB Stephen, Bodies of Water, Berkeley: Self-published, 1976. Artist book.
- LAUB Stephen, Starring, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 1976. (see Geoffrey Young)
Performance using the Hollywood film, ‘The Moon and Sixpence’. Like size scale is maintained by varying the distance between the projector and the screen by porjecting the film from a mobile cart.
- LOEFFLER Carl E., Sanding Circles, May 24, 1976. Audiotape.
- MARIONI Tom
— Carl Loeffler, « Tom Marioni, Director of the Museum of Conceptual Art (MOCA), S.F., in conversation with C.E. Loeffler », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.4, Spring 1976, pp.3, 5-7.
- MARKOWITZ Barry, A Continuation, 1976.
- MARKOWITZ Barry, Gift of the Rabbit, California State College, Dominguez Hills, Ca., 1976.
« Each duck reveals the boy’s growing anxiety. The gunman points his pistol and shoots the balloons. »
— Barry Markowitz, « Gift of a Rabbit », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.69-70.
- MCCARTHY Paul, Class Fool, 1976. Videotape, 50 mins., color.
— Linda Burnham and Richard Newton, « Performance Interruptus: Interview with Paul McCarthy », High Performance, no.2, v.1, June 1978, pp.8-12, 44-45. A major interview; includes photo documentation of many of McCarthy’s performance. Excerpts:
« PM: …I got down on the ground and shoved my face into a bucket of ketchup. I was spreading the ketchup around on the floor. I found that by talking to myself I could remove myself from them to where I could begin to get into the process.
I started to crawl underneath them. I had a big doll between my legs. I had coated its head with blue eye shadow with my hands. I started jumping up and down and the floor was slippery, so I would fall. And because the chairs were there I would bash into the chairs. I knew I was going to fall as long as I kept doing it and they knew it. I’d fall real hard… a hard fall as long as I kept jumping.
I’d done things like that before. One time I ran into a room blindfolded and I put objects on the floor that would trip me and I would run. I would slow down when I thought I was close to something on the floor or the wall. It produced an internal conflict. One part wanted me to complete it. The other part was protecting me…
I would try to jump and fall and I began to wonder if someone would try and catch me. Finally two people did. They tried to catch me…
Then I crawled underneath them some more. I had put a Barbie doll up my ass. I’d eaten some hand cream or something…
…I drank some ketchup and I began to throw up. »
- MCCARTHY Paul, Experiment Dancer, 1976. Videotape, 60 mins.
- MCCARTHY Paul, Political Disturbance, Biltmore Hotel, Los Angeles, 1976.
— Linda Burnham and Richard Newton, « Performance Interruptus: Interview with Paul McCarthy », High Performance, no.2, v.1, June 1978, pp.8-12, 44-45. A major interview; includes photo documentation of many of McCarthy’s performance. Excerpts:
« The majority of performances by Paul McCarthy have been for videotape or for private audiences. His few public works have met with interference…
POLITICAL DISTURBANCE, 1976…
HP: Why were you dressed as an Arab?
PM: It just sort of came (?) together like that. I hadn’t really contrived it. It’s just that I had bought this Arab mask (Puts it on).
PM: (Wearing mask) I’d bought the mask and I had this suit that I had graduated from high school in and I looked… (shows photo). The day of the performance I bought these plastic crucifixes and I had had some Arab music, this chanting music. It all came together.
HP: What did you do when they approached you and asked you to stop?
PM: Well, it started off when the bellboy came up and he said, “You’re going to have to stop this“. I was on the stairway and was eating some raw hamburger and I had already hung these things in the stairwell. I didn’t say anything but turned away so I couldn’t face him. That meant he would have to come up the stairway.
He just kept telling me to stop from down in the doorway into the twelfth floor. By that time there was a crowd of people so he went to the the hotel management. The manager came and started screaming at me to stop and I stayed here. I just kept facing the wall. I could hear them and I was singing and dancing, humming, groaning. I had a ketchup-covered doll on my head. I had been performing for about 30 minutes so things had sort of started collecting on me, on the floor and on the stairs. This went on for a while but they wouldn’t come up the stairs. They would just yell at me…
HP: What was the part they thought was obscene?
PM I tried to put a ketchup bottle up my ass. But it wasn’t overtly sexual, as some of the other stuff has been. I believe when they were saying it was obscene they were referring to the tape it showed the night before. They thought that was live too and that upset them. That I had pulled this over on them, done this live thing the first night. Also during the performance I had a doll hanging out of my pants… »
- MELCHERT Jim
— Jerome Tarshis, « Melchert on Film », Art News, v.75, January 1976, p.62. Review of Melchert’s exhibition at the San Francisco Museum of Art. Performance-oriented, the exhibition included 7 slide-projection pieces and one film. In one slide work entitled, Changing Walls, Howard Fried covered a wall-sized sheet of white paper with red paint. Excerpt:
« Location Project #5, a slide projection, gave us successive photographs of Wayne Campbell and Sybil Meyer making horizontal cuts in a seven-foot-high sheet of white paper. When they begin to remove sections of the paper, we see that on the other side is a corridor at the de Young Museum, at the end of which hangs an El greco. When the two stars have prepared their egress, they escape to the other side of the paper and thence out of the camera’s field of view. »
- MENDO DADA, Buster Cleveland with Mendo Dada and Bay Area Dada, Event at Christo’s Running Fence, 1976.
— B.P. Hagofen, « Another Roadside Infraction: Dadaists Crack Running Fence Security and Have Fun », Still, October 1976. Text and photos, pp.1, 5-8.
- MIRALLES Fina, Emmascarats, 1976.
As a member of the school of conceptual Catalan art from the 1970s, Fina Miralles (1950, Spain) early works were strongly influenced by Arte Povera, land art and an incipient environmentalist-feminist thought. The art-life binomial runs through her whole artistic production and is reflected in an attitude toward nature which is not just intellectual but also bodily and physical. The physical properties of natural materials: sand, stones, seaweed, trees and the sea, acquire in her work a fundamental weight, and are, at the same time, linked to a rediscovered feminine symbology, in opposition to the dominant culture.
The series of photographs Emmascarats protests against the silent violence carried out against the female body in a repressive society. The variations on the covering of the face conjugate women’s inability to express, communicate and receive, leading to the disappearance and negation of their own identity, and eventually, to their invisibility. In the 1980s Fina Miralles devoted herself to painting. In her series Fragments, the immersion of the body in the landscape was still an essential element in that phase, where she took her work a step further, delving into her inner psychological landscape.
- MIRALLES Fina, Petjades, 1976.
In Petjades (Footprints), Fina Miralles walks around the city, leaving traces of her name on the streets. Miralles subtly positions herself against the custom of women taking their husband’s surname when they marry, conveying her identity and independence in public space.
- MOGUL Susan
— Leo Rubinfien, « Susan Mogul; Anthology Film Archives, New York; exhibit », Artforum, v.15, December 1976, pp.64-65. Review of four videotapes presented at Anthology Film Archives, October 17, 1976. Excerpt:
« In the tapes she talks a blue streak directly to the camera, usually with a few small props – her bargain clothing, her vibrator, her billboards, for example – whose importance in her life she relates to us in a flexible mixture of Yiddish comedy, feminist sincerity and pseudo-conceptual art self-consciousness. She kept her audience in stitches with her raucous monologues, through which are filtered the intense autobiographical issues of Mogul’s Jewish upbringing, her sexuality, her desire for recognition as an artist and her effort to match herself to a stereotyped artist’s persona. »
- MOGUL Susan, August Clearance, Los Angeles, Ca., 1976.
— Susan Mogul, « Mogul’s Semi Annual Clearance », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.76-77.
— Susan Mogul, « Work Prints », from August Clearance, Los Angeles, Ca., 1976.
— Martha Rosler, « Susan Mogul: Moving the Goods », Artweek, v.7, August 28, 1976, p.5. Review of Mogul’s August Clearance, exhibition at Canis Gallery, The Woman’s Building, Los Angeles. Excerpt:
« Mogul hangs her work – photos and photo collages – on wire hangers and puts it in bins. The logic of the producer-consumer transaction has led her to price each piece according to its degree of ‘Finish’ (shades of nineteenth century Academicism!). She arrived at a hierarchical running from ‘sketch’ or work print, to full-scale work, in which only a finished item is seen as fully worthy of her ‘signature’. The monetary value then is a function of the labor invested (and ‘self’ reflected) – but the show, of course, represents an attempt to capitalize on all labor invested, just as an outlet allows manufacturers and shopkeepers to recover some of their investment even from slightly damaged, shopworn or poorly selling goods. »
- MOGUL Susan, Big Tip, Back Up, Shut Out, 1976. Videotape with sound, 10 mins., b/w.
Monologue in a standup comic delivery. Comments on the life of an artist who works as a waitress, waiting for a big tip. When it comes, it’s from a gallery director, and not quite what she had in mind.
- MONTANO Linda
— « Linda Montano », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.4, v.1, Spring 1976, pp.20-23. Includes ‘A conversation with Mildred Montano by Trudi Richards’ and ‘A Conversation Between Linda Montano and Tom Marioni After Having Been Handcuffed Together for Theree Days’, a life chronology, and photographs.
— William Kleb, « ‘Motion’ in San Francisco », Alternate Theatre, 1976, pp.4-5, 10.
— C.E. Loeffler, « Motion/Reynolds Collaborate », Front, no.2, v.1, February 1976, p.1. Excerpt:
« HOSPITAL: An objective sketch by C.E. Loeffler
Limited seating lining walls/Reynolds environment scattered throughout center/3 beds/sawdust floor/handsaw suspended from ceiling/bathtub/scraps of lumber/black medical bags/rollerskates/Venetian blinds/swing music/enter performers/environment activated/beds moved about/dancing with saws/weelchair tracking up sawdust/mimicry/I’m ill… my heart is beating… I’m hill/collaborative dance with handsaw/assault with handsaw on near objects/I could cut bed, my leg, my heart out/Do not destroy anything tonight… I promised/It’s impossible not to destroy/Let us look at your morals/can opener waving/Open my can/It’s your heart I want… not your genitals/I’ll seduce you/riding in wheel chair/serious organ music/Is it fun/you get used to it after a while/from a bed: Nurse… I want color television… water… a telephone… a can of water kicked/from the bed: Better conditions or else/ceiling outlet fills bath with steaming stream of water/ bubble soap added/hair washed/two in tub splashing/It’s time to explain the whole thing… it all started with a heartbeat/teapot whistles, steaming/steam breathing ritual/You better be careful/10 cent pony ride brought in/Grandma… do you a message/ Your Grandmother is disappointed in you/I’m afraid of dying/I want a baby/I don’t remember where to put the money in the horse/She’s afraid of horses/If we had a little more money everything would be all right/I wanted to be a cowgirl/Spare change man/I want a baby and I’ll cut your belly open to get it/exit horse enter steel bed frame and mattress, skeleton suspended above/lights out/skeleton: I want to dance with you/continued dance animates skeleton/phosphorescent applied to skeleton/space illuminated with greenish glow/dance continues to reclined position/Death is like a failing leaf… I’m ready to die now/white sheet covering skeleton/glow emanating thru/I’m ready to die now/end. »
— Janice Ross, « Motion and Jock Reynolds: Patterns of Mystery and Discovery », Artweek, v.7, February 14, 1976, p.13. Review of a series of four performances presented at 80 Langton St., San Francisco, by Motion, a women’s performing collective (Nina Wise, Suzanne Hellmuth, and Joya Cory) in collaboration with Jock Reynolds. Excerpt:
« Each of these four performances resulted in the production of a unique ‘theatre piece’. Sculptor and environmental artist Jock Reynolds collaborated with the three motion performers, Nina Wise, Suzanne Hellmuth and Joya Cory, by supplying them with a different surprise environment each night. The performance piece that resulted was the product of Motion’s improvisatory, kinetic and vocal reaction to Reynold’s set. »
— Bernard Weiner, « Women’s Collective: Conceptual Pieces for the Theater », San Francisco Chronicles, February 6, 1976.
- MOTION (Joya Cory, Nina Wise and Suzanne Hellmuth) with Jock Reynolds, Fish, 80 Langton St., San Francisco, Ca., 1976.
- MULVEY Laura & WOLLEN Peter, Riddles of the Sphinx, 1976. (film)
- MURAK Teresa, Sowing 31. Woman’s Calendar, 1976.
- MUSEUM OF CONCEPTUAL ART, A Tight Thirteen Minutes, San Francisco: MOCA and Henry Rosenthal, 1976. Videotape.
One minute color video works by Richard Alpert, Dianne Blel, Kevin Costello, Terry Fox, Howard Fried, Mel Henderson, Paul Kos, Stephen Laub, Tom Marioni, James Melchert, Masashi Matsumoto, Suzanne Spater, and Irv Tepper.
- NAUMAN Bruce, « Left or Standing, Standing or Left Standing », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.51-52.
- NENGUDI Senga, Studio Performance with R.S.V.P., 1976.
- NEWTON Richard, « 2 29 Black », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp. 74-75.
- PAIK Nam June, THREE EVENINGS ON A REVOLVING STAGE, Judson Church. NYC. 1976.
- PICARD Lil, 75th Birthday Party at Rene Block Gallery, November 9, 1976.
Gelatin silver photograh. Lil Picard with Hannah Wilke, Carolee Schneemann and Geoff Hendricks, ‘‘Art is a Party, The New Party is Art’’, Lil’s 75th Birthday Party at Rene Block Gallery, NYC, November 9, 1976. Photo: Eeva-Inkeri.
- ODENBACH Marcel, The Consumption of my Own Criticism, 1976-79 (action-vidéo)
- PIPER Adrian, Some Reflected Surfaces, fév. 1976. Whitney Museum.
- REES Joseph, « Joseph Rees at Lake Merritt, 1976 », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, 1976, p.43.
- RINKE Klaus, Primary Demonstration: Horizontal-Vertical, 1976. Oxford Museum of Modern Art.
- RINKE Klaus, Solo for pool attendants, 1976.
- ROSLER Martha, « Losing… A conversation with the Parents », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.9-10.
- SAMORE Sam & BLOOM Barry, « The Athlete as Artist ? An Interview with Kareem Abdul Jabbar », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, 1976, pp.17-19.
The first in a series of interviews entitled, The Athlete as Artist. Excerpt:
BB: I grew up about twenty blocks from you off Dyckman Street. In that area just across the bridge in the Bronx.
KAJ: Marble Hill?
BB. yeah. And, ah, I see you coming from the same sort of city ideology that I’m from. How do you describe the term art?
BB: So you really believe that art, then, is not a colloquial term, that it’s open?
KAJ: (in scoffing tone) ‘Course.
BB: So you define yourself as an artist whithin those boundaries because you’re expressing yourself in backetball?
KAJ: Somewhat. You know, people express themselves baking cakes and pies, and you would have to say they are culinary artists. I would think so.
SS: What kind of artists do you admire?
KAJ: I admire anybody that’s intelligent and can express themselves.
BB: Are you still into jazz as much as you were?
KAJ: Yes, ‘fact I went out to the Lighthouse last night. Saw Boddy Hucherson.
(Pause. Balls bouncing)
KAJ: I got to get going. If you want to talk to some more, you can talk after the game tonight.
- SAPIEN Darryl
— Fred Martin, « Fred Martin: Art and History – Scraps from a Conversation », Artweek, v.7, September 4, 1976, p.2. Martin recounts a discussion with Sapien about several of his works and how he become interested in art. Excerpt:
« [Sapien] said, “It is important to align the performance with the geometry of the space; you extend yourself so much further working within it.“ (And I have so often thought of each of us as a node in some vast tissue, or a point of infinite radiation, the center and circumference of all things.) »
- SAPIEN Darryl, Within the Nucleus, 1976, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, with Michael Hinton.
Two performers wearing video camera headmounts assembled a thirty-two foot tall double helix ladder suspended on a floor to ceiling armature of tightened ropes. Inside a cylindrical plastic curtain each performer ascended his red or green ladder as he built it, one rung at a time. Both performers could only see through the video cameras attached to their heads. The visual images of each camera were projected live on two large screens behind the shrouded tower. One screen was tinted red and the other tinted green to correspond to the red and green ladders being built. Upon reaching the top the performers exited the cylinder through the ceiling. Ultra violet light was then projected onto the ladders to illuminate the fluorescent paint on the rungs. Finally the performers descended the ladders with their white costumes glowing in the dark.
— Moira Roth, « Moira Roth Interviews Darryl Sapien », High Performance, no.2, v.1, June 1978, pp.4-7. A major interview that includes discussion of Sapien’s works: Tricycle: Contemporary Recreation, performed at the Museum of Conceptual Art as part of the Second Generation show, 1975; Splitting the Axis, performed at the University Art Museum, Berkeley, August 1975; Within the Nucleus, at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, March 1976; and The Principles of the Arch, at PS1, New York, March 1977. Excerpt:
« … we did Within the Nucleus in March of 1976 at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art which [an]… axis-type performance but instead of destroying an axis in this case we built one. It was in the shape of a double helix, which is based on the structure of DNA molecule…
In the performance, we used this structure and made it into an architecture feature, a real stairway, using taut ropes and two by fours, red and green two by fours. They were sent down to us by assistants who lowered them through a hole in the roof of the museum’s auditorium. Again, we wore these video camera helmets – so the audience could perceive the performance directly. The whole structure was enshrouded by a polyethylene curtain. What happened was that we started on the ground with nothing, it was a clean cynlindral space with just the ropes and the fasteners in place waiting for the two by fours. So we slowly progressed building this stairway which spiraled around and when everything was put together, the 36 feet of steps, it formed a green and red double spiral stairway. It took about an hour to build, and then we went through the hole at the top of the ceiling. We switched off the incandescent lights and turned on ultraviolet lights that we had placed on the top and the bottom, they shone on the fluorescent paint of the stpes. We turned these on and the curtain kind of disappeared – because it didn’t hold the ultraviolet light – and what you saw were the stairs, the steps glowing. After we had lit the ultraviolet lights, we took off our head mounts and came down very quickly so we really demonstrated the double helix shape of our structure. »
- SPIDERWOMAN THEATER, Women in Violence, 1976, New York.
- VAN SCHLEY
— Van Schley, « Memories of Overdevelopment », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.43-44.
- VAN SCHLEY, World Run, Long Beach: Long Beach Museum of Art, 1976.
- SCHNEEMANN Carolee, Up To And Including Her Limits, 1976 (action). Berlin.
- SEGALOVE Ilene, « An Artist/His Opening, A Guest/The Punch », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.11-12.
- SEGALOVE Ilene, « Video Infirmities », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.3, v.1, Winter 1976, pp.10-11.
- SEGALOVE Ilene & LOWELL Darling, « Hollywood Anthropoly/’Two Sujects from the Cauliflower Alley Tapes’ », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, 1976, pp.20-21.
- SHAW Joyce Cutler, An Interview with Joyce Cutler Shaw by Moira Roth, Sorrento Valley, Ca., Self-published, 1976.
- SHAW Joyce Cutler, We the People: Proposal for an Artwork, La Jolla: Self-published, 1976. Artist book.
- SHERK Bonnie, « Excerpt from: Aktin Logic – Volume II, Chapter 42, ‘Life Work’, page 3 », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.4, v.1, Spring 1976, p.12.
- SHERK Bonnie, The Farm, San Francisco, Ca., 1976.
— Bonnie Sherk, « The Farm », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, 1976, pp.32-35. Text and photos regarding the farm. Excerpt:
« The Farm es a multicultural art and life center located adjacent to a major freeway interchange where Potrero Hill, Bernal Heights, and the Mission converge. The Farm presents a strong, visual contrast to the technological monolith of the freeway and serves as a graphic demonstration because it frames life. In addition to visual imagery, the Farm is involved in making actual and conceptual connections. This is done by joining land masses through landscaping, providing an open forum for different aesthetics and styles, and involving children and others with life processes. »
- SHERK Bonnie, Raw Egg Animal Theatre, 1976. Videotape, b/w.
- SMITH Alexis, Sheherazade the Storyteller, Los Angeles, Ca., 1976.
«…a series of readings from the Thousand and One Arabian Nights, was performed on five evenings, August 23 through 27, 1976, before a very small audience. Ten guests each night were admitted to candle-lit environmental furnished with persians rugs and lattice-work screens and separated from the external world by the smell of incense and the soft gurgling of a fountain. A costumed attendant greeted the guest and offered them mint tea, cookies, and hashish. After they were refreshed, she conducted them into an inner chamber where the readings took place.
In the second chamber, the ten guests reclined on soft pillows in front of the traditional rug of the storyteller, while she read aloud by lamplight. The readings centered around a different tale each night, lasting approximately one and one half hours. The stories told included the ‘Prologue’ to the 1001 Nights or ‘The Tale of King Shariyar and his Brother Shazaman’, ‘Alladin and his Enchanted lamp’, ‘The Fisherman and the Jinnee’, The Voyages of Sinbad’, ‘The Tale of Ma’ruuf the Cobber’, and the ‘Epilogue’. »
— « Alexis Smith », Flash Art, nos.78-79, November/December 1977, pp.32-33, 36. In the post-Conceptual Romanticism issue; Smith discusses the romantic elements of her work and describes her performance series, Scheherazade the Storyteller, 1976.
- SMITH Barbara, I Am Not Lost But Hidden, 1976. Videotape with sound, 15 mins., color and b/w.
Videotape of a performance at Johnston College, University of Redlands, 1976, « Strong sense of a psychic interior to this play of images. »
- SMITH Barbara, Untitled. The Cover Up, 1976.
- SMITH Barbara, « Vogue Piece », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.5-6.
- SMITH Bradley, « Untitled », Criss Cross Double Cross, v.1, Fall 1976, pp.31-32.
- SOON 3/FINNERAN Alan, Cinemasculpture, directed by Alan Finneran, 1976.
— Tom Di Felice, « Soon 3: An Interview with Alan Finneran », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.4, Spring 1976, pp.17-19. Include photos. Excerpt:
TD: The progression from painting to Soon 3 is of interest to me. You exercise the same control over a piece as a painter over a canvas.
AF: That’s certainly what gives Soon 3 the character it has – the fact that I come from a visual orientation as opposed to a treatrical background. To make every image, every sound, every piece of sculpture accountable so that it’s not just there. There’s a reason for every motion, for every change in the image so that it will create a natural structure of its own as it happens. Many times people have used this type of input of projections and sound and actors, the use of it being a textural thing creating an overall flowing audio-visual environment. That I see as a major aesthetic difference from the work I do. It’s not my interest at all. At the same time, I don’t want to tell stories with it. I want each piece to create its own existence at the moment its happening. Not at all arbitrary. As you’ve seen, everything is very, very precise. It’s funny because what happens in the show is always extremely clear but why it happens is never clear at all. And that’s intentional. A lot of people have worked the opposite way: what happens is very unclear but why it happens they’ll write you volumes about; the visual information is vague but the literal bullshit behind it will go on for days. I work exactly oppositely in that I make things extremely clear and I don’t even claim to know why they’re happening.
TD: The scale on which you operate seems to put you in a very different position from most other performance artists.
AF: The scale of the work is important because the audience you’re dealing with is so filled and bombarded every day as they drive down freeways, in and out of elevators, and through supermarkets that I think it’s very difficult for people to look at an etching. I have nothing against etchings, but most people would feel more comfortable with my scale of work, because physically it’s in a more naturally relatable state to their environment – a frame in a museum is not a natural part of the environment we all live in. When we set up a show, the feeling, the scale, the simultaneity of its feels like a natural physical presence to exist in for an hour as you watch the show. »
- STELARC, Event for Stretched Skin, 1976. Tokyo.
- STELARC, The Third Hand, 1976-80. Tokyo.
- STURGEON John, Conjunct, 1976. Videotape with sound, 5 mins., b/w.
- STURGEON John, Two Aspects, 1976. Videotape with sound, 4 mins., b/w.
« A primal figure arranges groups of bone fragments on a mirror, moves triangles in patterns, pours water and wine, draws geometric diagrams on the desert’s parched surface. He is naked, silent, mythic, and the acts have a shamanistic quality. They are Magic, locating the artist in a world order expressed by a very personal vocabulary. »
- STURGEON John, The Two of Triangles, 1976. Videotape with sound, 2 mins., b/w.
- THREE EVENINGS ON A REVOLVING STAGE. Judson Church. NYC. 1976.
- TRANS-PARENT TEACHER’S INK., Paul COTTON, MEDIUM, Model Citi-Zen, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 1976.
Presented by Judith Azur, Diana Coleman, Paul Cotton, Margaret Fisher, Peter Hornback, Bob Hughes, Bedonna Magid, Pravda, Michael Rossman, John Rubin, Al Verdad and Stanley Whittiker. « Speech and the silence of the body were wedded in a panel discussion/meditation upon the innocence of the nude body and its freedom of expression in Life and Art. A pre-recorded dialogue between the panelists concerning their personal attitudes towards institutional – eye’d repression of casual nudity was broadcast into the auditorium as the ‘model citizens’ sat nude, mute and motionless in meditation on the vell of illusion. The group moved periodically from one attitude of intercommunication to another as preojected slides of the traditional art of the nude were mixed with slides of ‘model citizens’ at a nude beach. To emphasize the interplay of silence, symbol, sign and language, Michelle Dayley, a signer for the deaf ‘spoke’ behind each mute panelist as his voice was being broadcast. A folk-us of the dialogue was representation/presentation. » (Sponsored by the Floating Museum for the Global Space Invasion (Phase II)).
- TRANS-PARENT TEACHER’S INK, PAUL COTTON, MEDIUM, The SECOND Norman Invasion, 1976. Videotape, b/w.
University of California, Santa Cruz, 1976, sponsored by the Floating Museum.
« Riding on donkey, led by a pregnant fool and a retinue of clowns, Truth presented Hymn-Self, Messenger of the Gods, outside of Norman O. Brown’s class room in Greek Drama at U.C. Santa Cruise. Since Nobby had dis-owned/forgotten his WORD VISION and his search for the WAY OUT, the God of Doors called to climb through the window to commit The SECOND Norman Invasion. No! Brown remained true to character and scurried from the class-room like Claudius from Hamlet’s play within a play: The Mousetrap. »
— « Paul Cotton: Poem O’Granite », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, 1976, pp.38-41. Text and photo documentation of Transparent Teacher’s Ink ‘The Second Norman Invasion’, an event which took place at Cowell College, University of California Santa Cruz (Santa Cruise), on May 18, 1976. Excerpt:
« SCENE: Zippily Boo-Duh Hymn-Self, a Seed sculpture and Messenger of the Gods sits on a donkey led by the Pregnant Fool onto a sunny midday Cowell Plaza where students and faculty are casually eating lunch. Thunder is broadcast from the Seed. A small dog named God follows with a handful of clowns and concerned citizens carrying demonstration signs: ‘Artists Unite’, ‘No. Brown Unfair to Hymn-Self’, Neuro-Logical Proof of the Existence of God’, and ‘The Letter Killeth but the Spirit Giveth Life’. The demonstration is aimed at the atrocities committed against Hymn-Self by Norman O. Brown’s seven year denial of kinship with the work of Trans-Parent Teacher and The World Made Flesh.
« It cannot bu put into words because it does not consist of things. Litteral words always define properties. Beyond the reality-principle and reification is silence, the flesh. Freud said, “Our god Logos; but refrain from uniting with words, in order to unite with the word made flesh.“ Norman O. Brown, Love’s Body, Random House, 1966, p.265.
As Brown made on attempt to meet the entreaties of Trans-Parent Teacher’s Ink. in Cowell Plaza, the retinue proceeded to gather outside of the classroom where’s Brown class on Classic Greek Literature was in process. When he further refused to come out of doors, Zippily Boo-Duh Hymn-Self got off her ass, handed The Caduceus to the Zen Monk and lept thru the open window of the classroom. Brown, in a repetition of his negativity and inhospitality upon the occasion of “The First Norman Invasion“ (1969) gathered up his books, turned his back to LIFE and walked silently out of the room.
To complete the delivery of the message intended for those eyes that don’t see and those ears that don’t hear, Zippily bounded out of doors onto the lawn under the Class window. There, amidst that small circle of friends, Zippily Boo-Duh Hymn-Self Conducted Beth Anderson’s “The Messiah is come“. The poetry of that mythic vision was austral-projected for a few short minutes and recorded by videotape before it was interrupted by an irate administrator and the campus police. No charges were filed. »
- TRANS-PARENT TEACHER’S INK., PAUL COTTON, MEDIUM
— Paul Cotton & Beth Anderson, Transparent Teachers Ink. Presents the Bride Groom Is Hear/The Bride Groom Is Here, Self-published, 1976. Artist book.
- TUTTI Cosey Fanni, Untitled, 1976. (photo) Institute of Contemporary Art. Londres.
- ULAY, Action in Predetermined..., 1976.
- UNTEL, 350 mètres d’interventions, 1976, Rouleau de papier journal vierge, rue de la Barre, Mâcon.
- UNTEL, 350 mètres d’images, 1976, 7e rencontre photographie, Arles.
- UTHCO T.R. (Doug Hall, Jody Procter), 32 Feet Per Second, La Mamelle Arts Center, San Francisco, Ca., 1976.
« T.R. Uthco, a San Francisco Art Performance Group, sat 60 feet above the pavement in chairs bolted to the masonry wall outside the east windows of the third floor, La Mamelle Gallery. Both are afraid of heights. They sat from 9:00 in the morning to 3:00 in the afternoon, and during this time they talked continuously. The two performers were clearly visible to spectators on the street below, and the sounds of their amplified voices as well as video images from two nearby cameras were fed into the gallery spaces. »
— « Ancora per Assurdo; ‘32 Feet Per Second’ Performance a San Francisco », Domus, no.563, October 1976, pp.54-55. Description of the T.R. Uthco work 32 Feet Per Second, which took place on the building facade of La Mamelle Inc., San Francisco, April 1976. Article in Italian, French and English.
— T.R. Uthco, « The Avant Garde in Action », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, 1976, pp.28-29.
— « Verbal Muzak from Beyond the Edge », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.4, v.1, Spring 1976, p.25. Text and photo documentation from their work, 32 Feet Per Second Per Second. Excerpt:
« T.R. Uthco, a San Francisco Art Performance Group, sat 60 feet above the pavement in chairs bolted to the masonry wall outside the east windows of the third floor, La Mamelle Gallery. Both are afraid of heights. They sat from 9:00 in the morning to 3:00 in the afternoon, and during this time they talked continuously. The two performers were clearly visible to spectators on the street below, and the sounds of their amplified voices as well as video images from two nearby cameras were fed into the gallery spaces. For two days prior to their appearance on the wall they worked from a swing scaffold, setting the heavy welded steel braces and chairs in place, and drilling through 14 inches of brick with a roto hammer to be certain that the bolts holding their braces were solidly anchored. Their monologues, performed previously, but never for longer than two hours, were restricted only on the way – both presented a narrative description in the third person, male gender, past tense. They conceived of their voices as verbal muszak, and maintained a constant babble like water running over rocks, an endless stream of consciousness. Sitting so high off the ground, and at the same time occupied with this ceaseless meaningless talk, the performers created a psychic chemistry in which both began to believe they were going crazy. They shook steadily for the last four hours, experienced tension, stress, heavy paranoid anxiety attacks, and from time to time thought they might jump. The event was called ‘32 Feet Per Second Per Second’. »
— Beyond the Life. Willits, Ca.: Tuumba Press, 1977, no.8. Artist book.
Doug Hall and Jody Procter presented spontaneous monologues during their six hour performance of ‘32 Feet Per Second’, that took place on the facade of La Mamelle Arts Center, S.F., April 1976. “They conceived of their voices as verbal muzak and maintained a constant babble an endless stream of consciousness“. Beyond the Edge is a transcript of 22 minutes taken from the last hour.
- VIOLA Bill, The Space Between the Teeth, 1976 (vidéo).
- WEINFELD Yocheved, Untitled, 1976. Photo: Micha Bar-Am, b/w photo of a performance, Dawel Gallery, Jerusalem.
Yocheved Weinfeld’s actions in the performance Untitled (1976), were based on the ritual purification ceremony dictated to brides by Jewish law. Weinfeld created a disturbing and somber ritual, in which humiliating actions are performed upon the body of a passive woman. These actions were accompanied by a reading of texts from Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, a classic compendium of Jewish law – concerning mourning rituals, modesty and the impure status of women during menstruation. Weinfeld related these laws concerning the body and sexuality of women to death and mourning – an affinity that underscores the symbolic death of women within a demeaning cultural construction.
Born in Poland, 1947, lives and works in NYC.
- WEISSER Stefan, Hagiogrammz/Enchanted Hours. Self-published, 1976. Artist book.
- WIEHL Peter, « Peter Wiehl: Cross Piece », La Mamelle Magazine: Art Contemporary, no.5, v.2, 1976, p.44.
- WILHITE Bob, Bob Wilhite in Concert, 1976. Record. Documentation of two performances. Edition of 50.
- WILHITE Bob, Buckaroo-One for All, Los Angeles, 1976. Record. Documentation of a performance given at Bronxton Gallery, Los Angeles, 1976.
- WILHITE Bob, Telephone Performance, Bronxton Gallery, Los Angeles, Ca., 1976.
— Harvey La Taurette, « Telephone Performance », Artweek, v.7, february 28, 1976, p.6. Review of Wilhite’s exhibition at the Bronxton Gallery, Los Angeles, which lasted from 10:00-10:20 pm, January 23, 1976. « Attendance by telephone only », individuals who were sent invitations were asked to call the gallery during the 20 minute period. A 12’’ phonograph record was produced, recording the entire event. Excerpt:
« Those callers who got through heard one of two majors types of phone messages. The first six callers heard a description, lasting about two minutes, and each one totally different, of a visual event and/or artifact conceived by the artist. All of these callers were falsely informed that ‘complete documentation’ of the piece was currently on exhibit at the gallery – all, that is, except the first caller, who received a completely factual description of the piece to follow, including a statement (true) that none of the works to be described in subsequent calls existed. The last eight callers heard a forty-five second guitar solo played by Wilhite, each caller hearing the same solo, but in a different way, a progression which would not, of course, be apparent to each individual listener. »
- WILKE Hannah, Hannah Wilke Through The Large Glass, 1976-78. Philadelphia Museum of Art.
1976, 10 min, color, silent, 16 mm film on video. Hannah Wilke Through the Large Glass documents one of Wilke’s most effective and well-known performances, in which she performs a deadpan striptease behind Duchamp’s The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (also known as The Large Glass) at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Dressed in a fedora and a white suit, and evoking the style of 1970s’ fashion icons such as Helmut Newton and Yves Saint-Laurent, Wilke strikes a series of poses and then strips. She is seen through the glass of the Duchamp sculpture. In her self-conscious affectation of the often absurdist posturing of a fashion model, Wilke willfully uses her own image and her sexuality to confront the erotic representation of women in art history and popular culture. This piece was originally seen as part of an installation.
Made for the film « Befragung der Freiheitsstatue C’est La Vie Rrose » by Hans-Christof Stenzel. Camera: Lothar E. Stickelbrucks. Editor: Rosemarie Stenzel-Quast. Performed at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, June 15, 1976.
- WILSON Robert, Einstein on the Beach, (performers: Lucinda Childs & Sheryl Sutton). 1976/1988. (danse)
- WISE Nina, Death Meditations of Helen Brown, La Mamelle Arts Center, San Francisco, Ca., 1976.